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The structure of the Human Skeleton

Прочитайте:
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The skeleton consists of bones and constitutes the framework, which sustains the softer parts of the human organism. The backbone or the spine serves as the support to the body. It consists of thirty-three to thirty-four joints or vertebrae. In a man there are seven cervical vertebrae, twelve dorsal and five lumbar. Besides, there are false vertebrae consisting of five sacral (united to form one bone, the os sacrum), and four or five coccygeal or caudal vertebrae. The sacrum forms the basis of the vertebral column.

There is a foramen, or a hole in every vertebra, between its body (that is, the thickened front part) and processes. These foramina correspond with each other through all the vertebrae forming a long bony pipe, or canal, which contains the spinal marrow or the spinal cord. A substance (fibro-cartilage) forms a kind of partition the intervertebral discs between the vertebrae uniting them and lending a certain degree of flexibility to the vertebral column. The vertebrae and their processes afford attachments for a number of muscles and ligaments and also passages for the blood vessels, and for the nerves that pass out of the spine. Twelve pairs of elastic ribs extend outward and forward from the vertebral column forming the framework of the thorax, which affords protection to the heart, lungs and other internal organs. On the upper part of the back there are two triangular bones, the shoulder blades or scapulae. Each shoulder blade is connected with the clavicle or collarbone, which is jointed at the other end to the breastbone (sternum). The shoulder blades and the clavicles form a kind of arch inclosing the upper part of the breast, the thoracic girdle, to which the upper limbs are attached. The arch of the lower extremities is the pelvic girdle.

The skull, or the cranium, is a bony case that forms the framework of the head and encloses the brain. It consists of eight bones, namely, the frontal and occipital bones, upon the fore and back part; the two temporal and parietal bones, forming the temples and the sides of the skull; the sphenoid bone of the base of the skull; and the ethmoid bone at the top of the root of the nose, through which the olfactory nerves pass.

7. Закончите предложения, заменив русские слова в скобках их английскими эквивалентами.

 

1. The skeleton consists of bones and constitutes (остов) which sustains the (мягкие части) of the human body.

2. (Позвоночник) or the spine serves as support to the body.

3. In a man (имеются) seven cervical vertebrae, twelve (грудных), five (шейных).

4. There is (отверстие) or hole in every vertebra, between the body and processes.

5. The vertebra and their processes afford (прикрепление) for a number of muscles and (связок).

6. On the upper part of the back there are two flat (треугольные кости), the shoulder blade or (лопатки).

7. The arch of the lower extremities is (тазовый пояс).

8. The skull or the cranium is (костный каркас) that forms the framework of the head and (включает) the brain.

 

8. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний. Составьте предложения по содержанию текста.

 

- позвоночник состоит из 33 или 34 позвонков;

- имеются ложные позвонки;

- крестец образует основу позвоночного столба;

- отверстия совпадают друг с другом;

- канал, который содержит спинной мозг;

- позвонки и их отростки дают крепления;

- на верхней части спины имеются две треугольные кости;

- лопатки и ключицы образуют арку;

- дуга нижних конечностей – тазовый пояс;

- череп состоит из восьми костей.

 

9. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту «The Structure of the Human Skeleton».

1. What does the skeleton consist of?

2. What is the function of the spine?

3. Does the spinal column consist of a single elongated bone or a number of independent bones?

4. What are the independent irregular bones composing the spinal column termed?

5. How many vertebrae are there in man? (state the names and the number of various vertebrae)

6. What are the principal parts of a typical vertebra? (the body, the processes)

7. What is a foramen?

8. The vertebral foramina are placed one above another, aren’t they?

9. What is located in the canal formed by the vertebral foramina?

10. What are the vertebrae connected to one another by?

11. The vertebrae afford areas for the attachments of muscles and passages for blood-vessels and nerves, don’t they?

12. What do we call the elastic arches of bone, which are connected behind with the vertebral column and form a large part of the skeleton of the thorax?

13. How many ribs are there on each side?

14. What internal organs do the ribs afford protection to?

15. What bones form the shoulder or thoracic girdle?

16. What girdle are the lower extremities attached to?

17. What is the skeleton of the head termed?

18. State the names of the bones composing the skull.

 

Text: Chest

Grammar: Compounds.

 

1.

 
 
Прочтите слова, объясните по каким правилам, читаются выделенные буквы и буквосочетания. Переведите слова на русский язык.

 

Ch est, tr u nk, br ea st, p ar t, w i de, r oo t, bel ow, pl a te, m o ve, th ick, upp er, ar m, f ur ther, benea th, s ide, r igh t, d ow n, v ei n, lu ng, surface s, ne ck.

 


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