狸篪屦耱忸理囹铎理羼蝈玷铍钽锣牿桧铒痤翳豚牝桕锣脲铍钽洛蝈痂磬痂描汨屙青犷脲忄龛褥祗眍腩汨枢痄桀腩汨湾怵铍钽湾麴铍钽雾觐腩汨悟铕桧铍囵桧泐腩汨昔蜞朦祛腩汨相疣玷蝾腩汨襄滂囹痂襄疴 镱祛像桴栲蝠象朦祛眍腩汨绣囗桁圉绣忪囹铍钽羊铎囹铍钽义疣镨翌犟桕铍钽茵噔爨蝾腩汨羽铍钽脏痨嚓铍钽脏痨圉邂蜩赅澡玷铗屦囡则桤栲蝠砧痼疸蓓漕牮桧铍钽蒿桎屐桀腩汨

世心任倘蜗酪热. 马邃疱龛 觌桧梓羼牦 镳嚓蜩牦 恹耦觐桧纛痨囹桠 礤桧忄玷忭 戾蝾漕 滂嚆眍耱桕, 镥疴簋 铟屦邃 钍

橡铟栩嚅蝈:
  1. 买铕梓睇 赅痄桀扈铒囹梃
  2. . 信岩腥室嚷哇 世心任倘蜗酪热 (惺滔)
  3. 缅礤蜩麇耜 踵疣牝屦桉蜩赅 汨镥痱痤翳麇耜铋 赅痄桀扈铒囹梃
  4. 蔫嚆眍耱桕 汨镥痱痤翳麇耜铋 赅痄桀扈铒囹梃
  5. 蔫嚆眍耱桕 汨镥痱痤翳麇耜铋 赅痄桀扈铒囹梃
  6. 蔫嚆眍耱桕 滂豚蜞鲨铐眍 赅痄桀扈铒囹梃
  7. 蔫嚆眍耱桕 滂豚蜞鲨铐眍 赅痄桀扈铒囹梃
  8. 蔫嚆眍耱梓羼觇 牮栩屦梃 汨镥痱痤翳麇耜铋 赅痄桀扈铒囹梃
  9. 蔫嚆眍耱梓羼觇 牮栩屦梃 汨镥痱痤翳麇耜铋 赅痄桀扈铒囹梃
  10. 蔫趑屦屙鲨嚯 滂嚆眍耱桕 桎桀镟蜩麇耜铋 滂豚蜞鲨铐眍 赅痄桀扈铒囹梃

马邃疱龛 觌桧梓羼牦 镳嚓蜩牦 恹耦觐桧纛痨囹桠 礤桧忄玷忭 戾蝾漕 滂嚆眍耱桕, 镥疴簋 铟屦邃 钍, 镱玮铍桦 恹溴腓螯 眍恹 眍珙腩汨麇耜桢 纛痨 沭箫镥 礤觐痤磬痤沐眄 玎犷脲忄龛 扈铌囵溧 赅痄桀扈-铒囹梃 (侍). 软蝈眈桠眍 镳钿箨蜩忭铄 桤篦屙桢 镳璀麒 溧眄铋 镟蝾腩汨 蝈麇龛 镱耠邃龛 20 脲 蝈耥 疋玎 镳钽疱耨铎 祛脲牦痦铋 徼铍钽梃 沐眍滂嚆眍耱桕.

襄疴 铒桉囗 侍 猁腓 皲咫囗 L. Krehl 缅痨囗梃 1881 ., . Josserand L. Gallavardin 忸 责囗鲨 1901 . 武嚓 镱潆桧眍 珥圜屙桢 溧眄铋 镟蝾腩汨 猁腩 疣耜瘥蝾 珥喹麒蝈朦眍 镱珂 觐眦 50- 磬鬣脲 60- 沣. 犭嚆钿囵 疣犷蜞 . Mattingly, W. Harvey. 义痨桧 侍 怙屦恹 猁 镳邃铈屙 W. Bridgen 1957 . 潆 钺铉磬麇龛 噌铍邂囗栝 扈瞽赅痄 礤耥铋 桀腩汨, 礤 疋玎眄 囹屦铖觌屦铉铎, 蝮屦牦脲珙 疱忪囹梓羼觇扈 镱痤赅扈 皴痄鲟, 踵疣牝屦桤蟓桴 镱怆屙桢 赅痄桀戾汔腓 礤耥钽 沐礤玎 桤戾礤栝 磬 菔 溧朦礤轼桁 疣玮栩桢 皴痄鬻眍 礤漕耱囹铟眍蜩, 镳钽疱滂屙蝽 蝈麇龛屐 蝠嚆梓羼觇 桉躅漕旎.

令朦 怅豚 疣琊噌铗牦 溧眄钽 忸镳铖 忭羼 J. Goodwin, 镳邃腩骅怿栝 1961 . 镥疴簋 觌囫耔翳赅鲨 侍. 雾 镳邃篑爨蝠桠嚯 恹溴脲龛 镥疴梓睇 (桎桀镟蜩-麇耜桴) 怛铕梓睇 侍, 钺滂桴 玎犷脲忄龛 扈瞽赅痄 桤忮耱眍 桀腩汨. 襄疴梓睇 侍 镱漯噻溴腓顸 磬 玎耱铋眢 (滂豚蜞鲨铐眢), 钺耱痼牝桠眢 觐眈蝠桕蜩-眢 纛痨, 桉躅 桤 耱痼牝箴睇 趔黻鲨铐嚯 桤戾-


礤龛 扈铌囵溧. 蒡 耔耱屐囹桤圉 脲汶 铖眍怏 觌囫耔翳圉梃 侍, 觐蝾疣 猁豚 镳桧蜞 挛 1980 . 雾 镳邃篑囹痂忄豚 疣玟咫屙桢 桴 磬 滂豚蜞鲨铐眢, 汨镥痱痤翳麇耜簋 疱耱痂牝桠眢 纛痨, 铗腓鬣桢 麇蜿铋 耱痼牝箴眍 镟蝾翳玷铍钽梓羼觐 铟屦麇眄铖螯, 疣珉梓睇 觌桧梓羼觇 蝈麇龛屐. 青犷脲忄龛 扈铌囵溧 桤忮耱眍 桀腩汨, 蜞赕 镱疣驽龛 扈铌囵溧 镳 耔耱屐睇 镳铞羼襦 猁腩 疱眍 礤 铗眍耔螯 侍. 翌沅 驽 暑扈蝈蝾 耧屦蝾 挛 猁腩 恹咫屙 5 沭箫 耧弼梏梓羼觇 玎犷脲忄龛 扈铌囵溧: 桧尻鲨铐睇, 耔耱屐睇, 戾蜞犷腓麇耜桢, 磬耠邃耱忮眄-皴戾榄睇, 蜞赕 钺篑腩怆屙睇 忸玟彘耱忤屐 嚯脲疸梓羼觇 蝾戥耔麇耜桴 羿牝铕钼. 亦觇 钺疣珙, 镳桧噤脲骓铖螯 蝾 桦 桧铋 镟蝾腩汨 扈铌囵溧 侍 铒疱溴豚顸 桉觌栩咫眍 礤耥铖螯 桀腩汨. 武磬觐 镱 戾疱 疣玮栩 磬箨 耦忮瘌屙耱忸忄龛 磬篦睇 蝈蹴铍钽栝 礤篑蜞眍怆屙磬 璀铍钽 鬣耱 耱囗钼栩 耥铋, 桤忮耱磬 祛驽 猁螯 镱溻屦眢蜞 耦祉屙棹 镥疱耢铗痼. 岭嚆钿囵 磬觐镫屙棹 眍恹 溧眄 钺 桀腩汨 镟蝾沐礤珏 侍, 沭囗 戾驿 龛扈 耧弼梏梓羼觇扈 玎犷脲忄龛扈 扈铌囵溧 耱嚯 耱桊囹, 镱蝾祗 1996 . 眍戾黻豚蝮疣 觌囫耔翳赅鲨 侍 猁豚 镥羼祛蝠屙 疣犷麇 沭箫镱 耧屦蝾 挛 戾驿箜囵钿眍 钺耱忄 赅痄桀腩泐. 耦铗忮蝰蜮梃 耦怵屐屙睇 铒疱咫屙桢, 侍  犷脲珥 扈铌囵溧, 疋玎眄 磬痼桢 趔黻鲨 皴痄鲟 镳铗尻帼 怆屙扈 皴痄鬻眍 礤漕耱囹铟眍耱 /桦 赅痄桀戾汔腓. 玎忤耔祛耱 铗 忮簌邈 镟蝾翳玷铍钽梓羼觐泐 戾踵龛珈 桀镟蝾沐礤蜩麇-觐泐 羿牝铕 (觐蝾瘥, 钿磬觐, 礤 怦邈溧 祛骓 铒疱溴腓螯) 铐 镱漯噻溴 磬 4 纛痨:

1) 滂豚蜞鲨铐磬;

2) 汨镥痱痤翳麇耜;

3) 疱耱痂牝桠磬;

4) 囵栩祛沐眄 滂耧豚玷 镳噔钽 驽塍漕麝. 泥眄 疣耧痤耱疣礤眄铖蜩 玎犷脲忄屐铖蜩 侍

眍 镳栳腓玷蝈朦睇 踵疣牝屦, 黩 钺篑腩怆屙 疱潢铖螯 镟蝾腩汨, 耠铈眍耱 滂嚆眍耱桕 忮顸爨 钽疣龛麇眄 觐腓麇耱忸 桉耠邃钼囗栝 镱 桎屐桀腩汨 侍. 橡桧 聍栩囹, 黩 耱疣磬 箪屦屙睇 觌桁囹铎, 鬣耱眍耱



赔痤镥 沿, 疣耧痤耱疣礤眄铖螯 滂豚蜞鲨铐眍 侍 珥圜栩咫 恹, 麇 汨镥痱痤翳麇耜铋 (磬 漕膻 滂豚蜞桀眄铋 镳桴钿栩 铌铍 90% 怦艴 耠篦噱). 绣耱痂牝桠磬 侍 桴 耱疣磬 怦蝠鬻噱蝰 牮嚅礤 疱潢. 洛顸爨 疣耧痤蝠囗屙 滂豚蜞鲨铐磬 疱耱痂牝桠磬 侍 忄蝾痂朦眍 吏痂赍, 耋耱忮眄 疱驽 铐 怦蝠鬻帼蝰 肃蜩眈铋 漓屦桕 (眍 蝾驽 怵屐 鬣, 麇 赔痤镥 沿). 描镥痱痤翳麇耜 侍 疣耧痤耱疣礤磬 忸 怦屐 扈疱, 钿磬 蝾黜 鬣耱铗 邋 礤 篑蜞眍怆屙, 黩 疋玎眍 耦 珥圜栩咫睇 麒耠铎 徨耨桁矧铎睇 耠篦噱.


泥蜞 漕徉怆屙: 2015-09-18 | 橡铖祛蝠: 244 | 袜痼龛 噔蝾瘃觇 镳噔



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